Further Reading – Extended




"Every chapter in the widely distributed first edition has been updated, and four new chapters on current issues such as connectivism and social software innovations have been added. Essays by practitioners and scholars active in the complex, diverse, and rapidly evolving field of distance education blend scholarship and research; practical attention to the details of teaching and learning; and mindful attention to the economics of the business of education."

The complete previous version is available for free under

"With a focus on basic principles and general guidelines this guidance applies to existing and emerging technologies. It is essential reading not just for those specialising in flexible and distance learning and distance education, but anyone concerned with the integration of technology with teaching."

This chapter of the Handbook of Translation Studies contains information about different approaches to translator eduction. E-Learning is one of the approaches explained.

"This new edition of Theory and Practice of Distance Education has been thoroughly updated both by describing how practice has changed, and by examining recent research in the field. Like the first edition, this book provides a comprehensive survey of distance education, looking at it globally and discussing the different lines of thought and models used. It describes the place of distance education in educational thinking, its various theories, principles, and techniques of presentation, its organization and its administration."

This link leads to a complete PDF version of the book. "The present book is on the one hand a short, somewhat conversational presentation and updating of the most important concerns studied in depth in Theory and Practice in Distance Education. On the other hand it is a discussion of the status and trends of distance education at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which among other things includes a scrutiny of the relationship of technology to distance education."

"This is a book about the teaching and particularly the acquisition of translation-related skills and knowledge. Well grounded in theory, the book also provides numerous examples drawn from the author's extensive classroom experience in translator education and foreign language teaching.

Kiraly uses a number of classroom case studies to illustrate his method, including: introductory courses in translation studies, project-based translation practice courses, translation studies seminars, as well as naturalistic foreign language learning classes for student translators.

The book is primarily geared toward translator educators and programme administrators, as well as students of translation, and will also be of interest to foreign language teachers who incorporate translation into their teaching, to translation scholars, and to others involved in the world of translation."

Synopsis: "The book presents a comprehensive account of research and development activities in open, ditance and flexible learning from acknowledged experts from around the world. The use of open, distance and flexible learning materials is expanding dramatically, not just in schools, further and higher education but also in industry, commerce and the social services."

"Lexicon of Online and Distance Learning, a desktop resource, focuses specifically on distance education for researchers and practitioners. It provides key information about all levels of education (that is, K 12, higher education, proprietary education, and corporate training), allowing for comprehensive coverage of the discipline of distance education. The book offers a comprehensive index of distance learning terms; cross-references to synonyms and, when appropriate, online web links to encourage further exploration. Each lexicon entry is categorized by its root terminology general, education, technology, instructional technology, or distance education and provides the actual definition and complete exploration of the term along with specific references that include related books, volumes, and available manuscripts."


Articles and Websites

Abstract: "Universities have long experimented with different learning environments to accommodate the needs of their students. Along with the traditional classroom, we have seen the use of correspondence courses, courses on tape, televised courses, and most recently internet-based distance education. Utilizing a 22-question survey with 217 respondents, who were primarily adult, part-time students enrolled in criminal justice courses, this research examined why students chose distance education, and student perceptions of the quality and difficulty of those courses as compared to courses taught in the traditional classroom. The data indicate that students strongly prefer distance education, largely because it allows them to balance their other commitments more easily. Respondents also perceive that they achieve higher quality educational outcomes in the distance learning environment. They do not believe that they sacrifice a quality education for the convenience of utilizing distance learning. While distance learning may be most appropriate at colleges and universities with large numbers of adult learners, commuters, and part time students, there may be some educational advantages for institutions to integrate some of the best aspects of distance learning into traditional courses to build a “hybrid” learning environment."

PDF document that provides a clear description of asynchronous and synchronous E-Learning processes and how they can be used in practice.

Abstract: "Recent cognitive models present translation competence as an open-ended process encompassing a number of mutually dependent, interacting sub-components, which seems to have resulted in a shift towards process-orientation in translator training and created a favourable climate for introducing social constructivist methods to translator education. This paper considers the emergence of a new translator training paradigm and the challenge it poses for e-learning, which by virtue of the key role played by ICT tools in the translation process is well positioned to become an established, integral part of process-oriented, constructivist translator education."

This website contains an extensive list of advantages and disadvantages of distance learning. Optimus Sourcing provides E-learning solutions for its Clients.

  • Schmit, Christine. 2006. "Distance and Online Courses for Translators."

    Synopsis: "The purpose of this paper is to provide information about distance and online courses for translators around the world.

    Translators seem to be ideal candidates for online and distance courses as they are often already working as translators or in another profession when they decide to enroll for a translation course. Also, as continuing education is extremely important in our profession, distance and online courses can be an interesting alternative to traditional education for those who cannot attend a classroom. Furthermore, such courses can prove of interest for people with a degree or experience in another field, such as law, medicine or engineering for example, who have the necessary language skills to work as translators but would like to earn a certificate or degree in translation as well."

    However, the list provided by the author may no longer be up to date.

  • Tam, Maureen. 2000. "Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming Distance Learning."

Abstract: "This paper examines the characteristics and value of designed instruction grounded in the constructivist theory. It also attempts to connect the theory to the prevailing technology paradigms to establish an alignment between pedagogical and technological considerations in support of the assumptions arising from constructivism. Distance learning provides a unique context in which to infuse constructivist principles where learners are expected to function as self-motivated, self-directed, interactive, collaborative participants in their learning experiences by virtue of their physical location. Hence, the aim of this paper is to provide a clear link between the theoretical principles of constructivism, the construction of technology-supported learning environments, and the practice of distance education."

This article is available via JSTOR.



"The online journal system has been diffused very fast for last 3 years. TOJDEL has continued to diffuse new trends in distance education to all over the world since January, 2013."

"TOJDEL is confident that readers will learn and get different aspects on distance education. Any views expressed in this publication are the views of the authors and are not the views of the Editor and TOJDEL."

"The Quarterly Review of Distance Education is a rigorously refereed journal publishing articles, research briefs, reviews, and editorials dealing with the theories, research, and practices of distance education.

The Quarterly Review publishes articles that utilize various methodologies that permit generalizable results which help guide the practice of the field of distance education in the public and private sectors.

The Quarterly Review publishes full-length manuscripts as well as research briefs, editorials, reviews of programs and scholarly works, and columns.

The Quarterly Review defines distance education as institutionally-based formal education in which the learning group is separated and interactive technologies are used to unite the learning group."



The video below is an extensive and informative discussion featuring multiple experts on the topic of educational delivery. While this video was produced in 2005, its contents are still relevant in today's education and its arguments can still be taken into consideration by anyone interested. Warning: This video is over an hour long, so be sure to set some time aside if you are interested.